2 weeks ago

 Yes, drinking even a small amount of sugary drinks for a long time is harmful to the body. The drinks here are in addition to (unsweetened dairy / vegetable protein drinks, 100% pure juice, tea drinks) 


This conclusion has been confirmed by epidemiological experiments - in modern words, the real hammer. In Australia, it has been included in the guidelines to reduce the consumption of sugary drinks, and the sale of sweet drinks is prohibited in primary and secondary schools in NSW. 

Although there are many kinds of drinks, let's first analyze the mainstream -- 
 sweetened drinks. 


So what are the main problems of drinking this kind of drinks: (note that the following is not a conclusion, but an analysis of the evidence of the health risks of drinking sweet drinks. Although the observational experimental evidence is weak, if it is highly unified, it is still of reference significance)


 1. Add sugar 



 2. Characteristics of liquid (corresponding to solid food) 



 when these two kinds of properties are put together, they form the biggest threat to health, which is more dangerous than eating sugary food or sweet food alone. 



 increased risk of type 2 diabetes (1) 


A meta-analysis, published in the journal Diabetes Care in 2010, combined 11 prospective cohort experiments and concluded that "the group who drank the most sugary drinks (1-2 drinks a day) had a 26% higher risk of type 2 diabetes than the group who drank less than one. 

Although we still can't come to the conclusion that "drinking sweet drinks will lead to diabetes", we can deduce the evidence that "drinking sweet drinks will increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases related to weight gain". 


 increased risk of cardiovascular disease (2) 


The evidence comes from a small number of prospective randomized crossover Trail) experiment, which shows that young people's moderate to low-level use of soft drinks containing fructose and glucose will increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, specifically reflected in the change of metabolic markers in the blood: the size of LDL becomes smaller, fasting blood glucose increases, and hypersensitive C-reactive protein increases (markers of inflammation). 

So how to interpret this result is simply to say that young people's lipid metabolism will be adversely affected and their inflammatory response will rise when they drink even a little more sugary (fructose / glucose 40g) beverage. 
 that's because the added sugar in the drink will make you more prone to cardiovascular disease. 



 and you should know that a jar of 600ml iced black tea containing about 9% sugar has 54G of fructose glucose syrup. Long term drinking will increase your risk of cardiovascular disease. 



 drinking sweet drinks is related to obesity (3) 


A randomized controlled trial (with strong evidence) has come. A controlled trial aimed at teenagers' drinking sugary drinks vs energy-free drinks shows that during the 25 week experiment, if the happy fat house water that teenagers depend on for a long time is replaced by energy-free drinks (still drinking but without sugar), their BMI will drop statistically. 

That is to say, without changing other eating habits, just replacing fat house water with energy free drinks can help you lose weight. 

To sum up, besides giving you happiness, sugary drinks are definitely harmful to your health. Therefore, drinking even a small amount of sugary drinks for a long time is harmful to your health. The main reason is


 1. Sugary drinks are empty calories - if you drink them, you will increase calories, and there will be no good results. 



 2. Drinks have little effect on satiety - the amount of calories you drink doesn't occupy your stomach, and you still eat so much food. (on the contrary, when you eat solid sweets, you will probably reduce the intake of other foods) 



 3. The sugar in the beverage is all free sugar -- the effect of free sugar on blood sugar is greater than that of the sugar mixed with other substances. 



 so sweet drinks are so bad, what about yogurt? What about Lactobacillus drinks? 


It's not good to have sugar, but it's not a pure drink but food that contains certain dairy products. Because it provides nutrients other than free sugar - protein, vitamins, minerals. 

But that kind of "milk beverage" with protein content lower than 1% and added sugar higher than 5%, has almost no difference with sugar beverage in essence, so it can be sure that the long-term health benefits of this kind of beverage are also negative. Some people think that Lactobacillus drinks add probiotics, and contain lactic acid to help digestion; if so, I recommend you to choose gel yoghurt with less water content, especially Greek yoghurt with a lot of water and whey protein removed, which not only gains the benefits of probiotics, but also eats more protein and calcium due to the increase of overall density High, but eat less sugar. (try to compare the sugar in 200g yoghurt and 600ml dilute lactobacillus drink.)


 What about sports drinks, energy drinks and vitamin drinks? 


The basic formula for these three types of drinks is: water, sugar, minerals and / or vitamins. Therefore, for the special population -- people who consume a lot of physical strength and sweat too much, and need to improve their spirits temporarily (such as cramming), drinking occasionally can help their physical strength and electrolyte recovery, and improve their quality of life. But it's not such a special case. Drinking them often is not different from drinking sugar water. Because the added vitamins and minerals are very small, but sugar is a spoon, and sports drinks often add caffeine / guarana and other nerve stimulants, long-term drinking may cause dependence. 


 is pure juice healthy? 


Pure fruit juice can be understood as the fruit with most of the fruit dregs removed. Its advantage is that it contains the nutrition of fruit itself (vitamin minerals and part of dietary fiber); its disadvantage is that the amount of dietary fiber is reduced, some vitamins are damaged, and it can not provide enough satiety. We should also know that the sugar in fruit is not free sugar, but once squeezed into juice, the sugar in it will become free sugar to be controlled, so we need to control the intake of pure juice, otherwise we will also cause the above several adverse consequences. 


 why is sugar free when fruit becomes juice? 


Because after turning into juice, the character changes into liquid, and a large number of sugar in fruit is squeezed out of cells; meanwhile, a large number of fruit dregs are discarded, and the dietary fiber, one of the main nutrients of fruit, is taken away together with the sense of fullness, so the sugar and free sugar in juice are of a nature at this time. If you limit the amount of juice, the sugar from the juice will do the same harm to your health. 

You can easily drink the juice of four apples, but you can't eat four apples, but the sugar in four apples will be bad for you. Here's an attitude toward pure juice. If you can't guarantee two servings of fruit a day, a cup of pure juice from two servings of fruit juice is still good for you. And if you can eat two servings of fruit, the extra juice is likely to do more harm than good. 


 free sugar: the monosaccharide or disaccharide that is added into the food or consumed separately. And! Syrup, honey, monosaccharide and disaccharide in juice. 



 What about the health effects of sugar free sweetener drinks? 


The current research evidence is not uniform. The first most controversial is the results of a cross-sectional study: people who drink sweetened drinks containing sugar for a long time have 47% higher BMI than those who never drink such drinks (4). But even after controlling the weight, race, baseline weight, exercise amount, eating habits and diabetes status confounding factors, we still found that the BMI of the people who drank substitute sugar beverage for a long time was significantly higher than that of the people who did not drink it; but only for the people who exercised more, and the obese people who had diabetes and baseline BMI & gt; 30 at the beginning, the BMI of the people who did not drink substitute sugar beverage was significantly higher than that of the people who did not drink it There was no statistically significant difference. 

Interpretation: regular consumption of sugar drinks is associated with higher BMI (usually higher body weight), and increased exercise may offset this negative relationship. Although this cross-sectional experiment can not be used to infer the cause, we can still get the hint: there is a relationship between long-term consumption of substitute sugar drinks and obesity; however, it is not sure whether fat people prefer to drink or drink it easily, because at present, the main criticism of substitute sugar is that sweeteners cause blood sugar reaction, increase appetite, glucose intolerance and change of intestinal flora (5). 

The disadvantage of this experiment is that it doesn't answer our question about whether sugar drinks are healthier than regular sugary drinks. 


So we introduced another prospective cohort study to understand the effects of the two on type 2 diabetes (6) -- this study showed that people who drank the most sugary and sweet drinks had a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than those who drank the least sugary and sweet drinks after controlling for baseline confounding factors There was no significant difference in the risk between those who drank the most and those who drank the least. Only when the baseline confounding factors were not controlled, there was a significant difference 
. 

Unscramble: we can basically understand that the sugar beverage is a better choice if you have to drink sweet beverage because of its low sugar index and calories. However, no matter who you are, it is the best way to not drink any sweet beverage. For those who did not control the baseline factors, the significant correlation between the consumption of sugar drinks and the risk of type 2 diabetes was that people with poor health would choose more sugar drinks (such as obese / diabetic patients would choose more such sugar drinks). 

As a logical explanation, this paper is based on the analysis of sweet drinks and health risks, rather than the analysis of "free sugar" on health. So don't extend to eating sugar, or even sweets. Because the role of sugar in diet and its impact on health are much more complex than that of sweet drinks, and there is no very uniform evidence (but the evidence of sugary drinks is highly uniform), no over analysis is required. 

In the end, I reply to a question from many people: why do I often drink sweet drinks without getting fat? If I want to gain weight, I should drink more drinks. 

What I want to say is that the relationship between drinking sweet drinks and weight gain is based on the reference of normal diet. People who drink more drinks have higher BMI than those who don't. So there is no evidence to support the logic that drinking sweet drinks can make you fat. The same goes for "smoking can lead to lung cancer. Why does my uncle smoke for 20 years? ". When you use personal examples to question the conclusions of the experiment, please analyze your diet first, then learn basic nutrition, and you will know the answer to this kind of question. 

(1)Malik, V. S., Popkin, B. M., Bray, G. A., Després, J. P., Willett, W. C., & Hu, F. B. (2010). Sugar sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic sy

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