5 days, 3 hours ago

No matter how low the alcohol is, it is also alcoholic. Children, pregnant women and lactating women should not drink it. 

How does rice turn into wine

Intelligent ancients found that grain fermentation would emit aroma, exude sweet and refreshing, and slightly irritating juice, and gradually developed the technology of wine making. 

In general, the brewing process is to steam the glutinous rice (which is also used in some places) overnight, and then cool it in the air, mix it into the starter, compact the rice in the container, dig a "hole" in the middle of the rice for fermentation, and then seal the container and ferment at room temperature for 1-2 days. 

The mixture of rice and rice wine juice is called 
 brewing, also known as mash 
. At this time, the alcohol is low and the juice is sweet. If the fermentation goes on and distills again, the liquor with higher degree will be obtained. 

 can decompose rice starch into glucose, fructose and other small molecules of reducing sugar, protein into small molecules of amino acids, 
 further converts sugar into alcohol, carbon dioxide and organic acids. [1][2]

In the draft of national standards on wine brewing, the content of 
 rice grains is set at more than 30% and the alcohol content is below 6% / vol 
, and the prepackaged products with alcohol content greater than 0.5% / vol should be marked with "excessive consumption is harmful to health". [3]

However, since this set of national standards has not been implemented, even for packaging products, we can not know the specific alcohol content. 

In particular, we make or buy some handmade wine at home, the alcohol level will be more difficult to control. 

Although the degree of most wine is between 1.9-5.1% / vol, [1] [4] [5] [6], if saccharified koji and yeast are added successively, the 
 alcohol degree can be as high as 12% / vol after 48 hours of fermentation. 

 can children and pregnant women drink it? 

Alcohol is a clear risk factor for many diseases and cancers. My advice has always been: it's better not to drink. 

For ordinary adults, considering that the degree of brewing is not high and the amount of sweeteners added is not too large, if it is heated, after evaporation, alcohol will be greatly reduced, and occasionally eat a little, the problem is not particularly big. 

For minors who are still developing and pregnant women with babies in their stomachs, any alcohol exposure will bring risks, 
 may cause brain damage, affect growth and development, and increase the risk of alcohol abuse in adulthood. 

 / strong 

In the traditional custom of "sitting in confinement", there is also the saying of drinking and brewing milk. This is obviously not recommended. 

Even if it is 
 high temperature processed wine, there will still be some alcohol residue 
. Although studies have shown that alcohol intake can increase prolactin levels. However, the problem is that ethanol, as a small molecule substance, can enter the milk, thus causing damage to the baby's nervous system, heart and liver. 

There are even studies showing that lactating mothers who drink alcohol can cause withdrawal symptoms in their fetuses. Therefore, we do not recommend that lactating mothers drink alcohol. 

(if some mothers really want to drink, the risk is relatively small if they are limited to a can of beer or half a glass of wine. But be sure to feed your baby first, drink immediately, and then consider breastfeeding in about two hours. At the same time, you can also consider sucking some non-alcoholic milk in advance, then refrigerate it, and feed it to the baby when necessary.) 

In addition, there are also statements such as wine tonic and appetizing. It may be that the carbon water in the wine is largely decomposed into small molecular sugars, and the protein is decomposed into small molecular amino acids, 
 it is better to absorb 
. If you add a lot of extra sugar, dumplings, eggs It's really easy to get fat. 

 tips for homemade brewing

If you want to try to make your own wine at home, here are some tips:

 choose fresh, round and round japonica glutinous rice

Old glutinous rice is fragile and has poor solubility. Japonica glutinous rice has high amylopectin content, low fat and protein content. Under the same fermentation temperature and time, the wine produced is sweeter, mellow, lower alcohol content, and is not easy to sour and astringent. [1][2]

 keep the environment and container clean

In the process of saccharification and fermentation, excessive oil or mixed with 
 miscellaneous bacteria 
 may all 
 lead to rancidity and even bring health hazards. Pay attention to the container is clean and free of oil. [7] In general, the mycelium produced by fermentation should be white. If there are gray or black plaque, it may be mixed with mixed bacteria, so we need to be vigilant. 

 pay attention to the fermentation temperature and time, and put it into the refrigerator in time

Make sure that the steamed glutinous rice is cooled to room temperature before adding koji. High temperature may inactivate yeast. 

A number of studies generally believe that 
 30 ℃ is the appropriate fermentation temperature 
, [2] [4] [5] if the current room temperature has exceeded 30 ℃, you can consider empty rooms or look for ventilation and shade in the room. 

It is necessary to check the fermentation degree regularly and put it into the refrigerator in time after the satisfactory wine is obtained. Continuous fermentation will reduce sugar content, increase alcohol and acid content, and greatly reduce the taste. 

Reference: (updated July 23, 2020)

[1] Yang Ting, Jia Dongying, Ma Haoran, Zhao Jiayuan, Chi Yuanlong, Yao Kai. Effects of chemical components of glutinous rice on fermentation and quality of rice wine [J]. Food science and technology, 2015,40 (05): 119-123

[2] Jiao Jingkai. Study on microbial diversity and characteristics of dominant bacteria in traditional rice wine [D]. Harbin Institute of technology, 2012

[3] Notes on the preparation of national food safety standard liquor making (Draft for comments), 




[4] Cai Liu, Xiong Xingyao, Zhang Tingting, Zeng Lu. Fermentation technology and stability of sweet wine [J]. Modern food science and technology, 2012,28 (05): 527-529 + 520

[5] Tian Yahong, Wang Weijie, Jia Changhong, Liu Hui. Study on fermentation process and composition change of sweet wine [J]. Food science and technology, 2008 (06): 37-39

[6] Yang Yong, Chen Weiping, Ma Rui, Yu Lili. Analysis and evaluation of nutritional components in sweet wine [J]. Chinese brewing, 2011 (06): 182-184

[7] Sun Jinxu. Home made sweet wine [J]. Modern rural science and technology, 2011 (21): 75


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