4 days, 10 hours ago

Shanghai itself is not a place where bronzes were unearthed, so the sources of its collections are quite different from those of other museums in China. Besides the old collections in the museum, they mainly rely on acquisition, donation and administrative allocation. 

At the beginning of the establishment of the museum, the collection was mainly derived from the collection of smuggled goods, the seizure of family property and donations from collectors, among which bronzes accounted for a large proportion. During the period of the Republic of China, Shanghai was the largest trading port in China. A large number of cultural relics were exported from Shanghai to all over the world. Before and after liberation, many antique dealers were eager to ship their stock abroad. Many of them were seized by the Shanghai municipal government and handed over to Shanghai museum after liberation. The most famous of these relics is the 17 boxes of 342 pieces of cultural relics that Lu qinzhai, a big antiques dealer, is preparing to sell to the United States. Among them, 23 bronzes of Jin State, which Lu qinzhai bought with 290000 yuan and unearthed in Hunyuan, Shanxi Province, are known as "Hunyuan Yi ware". The most famous bronze ox Zun in it is one of the treasures of the museum in Shanghai. 

<img class="content-image" src=" https://pic1.zhimg.com/v2-925e9fd965fe79073b720c691ccee7cc_ b. The bronze ox statue, which Lu qinzhai is going to sell to the United States, was photographed in the bronze exhibition hall of Shanghai Museum

After liberation, many Shanghai antique dealers were investigated. Ye Shuchong, Zhang Xuegeng, Hong Yulin and Dai Fubao, the four major antique dealers in Shanghai beach, except for Dai Fubao who fled to Hong Kong, Hong Yulin committed suicide by jumping off a building. Ye Shuzhong and Zhang Xuegeng were sentenced to be sent to Qinghai. Their collections were naturally seized and returned to Shanghai Museum. 


 
 
 Zhang Xuegeng's old collection of Shang Dynasty animal face sculpture was taken in the bronze exhibition hall of Shanghai Museum

In addition to the collected cultural relics, the cultural relics donated by the people are also an important source of the old cultural relics in Shanghai Expo. As mentioned above, the old bronzes of Pan's "Pangu Lou" were donated to Shanghai Museum by Mr. Pan Dayu in 1951. Among them, the most famous big Yu and Da Ke Er Ding are the treasures of National Museum and Shanghai Museum respectively. 


 
 
 Pan's donation of the Western Zhou Dynasty tripod to Shanghai Museum was taken in the bronze exhibition hall of Shanghai Museum

All of these are bronzes that were put into the collection of Shanghai Museum when it was founded. Since it was founded in 52 years, Shanghai Museum has developed from a local museum with only 18000 cultural relics to a world-famous Center for collecting Chinese bronzes. Mr. Ma Chengyuan, the old curator of Shanghai Museum and a famous bronzeware scholar, has contributed a lot. 

Since 1954, Ma Chengyuan was transferred to be the head of the preservation Department of Shanghai Museum and the director of bronze research department. That is to say, since this year, Shanghai Expo has established a long-term cooperative relationship with Shanghai smelter, and has selected many precious bronzes from the scrap iron to be smelted. For example, eshuzhen in the early Western Zhou Dynasty and Luyuan bell in the spring and Autumn period were all selected by Ma Chengyuan and his colleagues from scrap copper from Shanghai smelter. 


 
 
 the author took a photo in the bronzes exhibition hall of Shanghai Museum

During the cultural revolution, in order to save the bronzes collected by the people, Mr. Ma Chengyuan made a report to the municipal government in the name of Shangbo, demanding that the cultural relics copied by the red guards and the rebels should be taken over by Shangbo. Due to the impact during the cultural revolution, many collectors turned to Ma Chengyuan and asked Shanghai Museum to take over the protection of their cultural relics. For example, Mr. Li Yinxuan, a famous collector of bronzes, called ma Chengyuan during the Cultural Revolution to ask Shangbo to preserve his cultural relics. Ma Chengyuan immediately contacted vehicles and organized people to go to Li Yinxuan's house to rescue the cultural relics. The inventory work lasted from the afternoon of the first day to the noon of the next day, and it took two trucks to transport all the cultural relics back. After the cultural revolution, Shanghai Museum of cultural relics collected these relics Some cultural relics were returned to the Li family intact. Later, according to Li Yinxuan's will, Ms. Qiu Hui, Li Yinxuan's wife, donated more than 70 precious bronzes collected by Li's family to Shanghai Museum. Among them, Xiao Chen Shan Chen, Lu Hou Zun, Shu Shuo Fu Fang Zhen, Hou Zhuo Fang Ding, Ke Zhong and Shi Song Ding are all important collections in the Bronze Ware Exhibition Hall of Shanghai Museum. 


 
 
 Li Yinxuan donated Fang Zhen, uncle Shuo's father of the Western Zhou Dynasty, who was photographed in the bronze exhibition hall of Shanghai Museum

After the reform and opening up, acquisition and donation have become the main source of collection in Shanghai Museum. Since Mr. Ma Chengyuan became the curator of Shanghai Expo in 1985, the Shanghai Museum has repeatedly spent money to purchase cultural relics from overseas, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Among them, the most famous are the bamboo slips of Chu and Su Zhong, Marquis of Jin. In 1992, Professor Zhang Guangyu of the Chinese University of Hong Kong sent Ma Chengyuan a set of pictures of chime bells. The inscriptions on the bells were engraved instead of the common inscriptions on bronzes of the Western Zhou Dynasty. Many Hong Kong Tibetans were afraid of the inscriptions, so they were afraid to start. However, Ma Chengyuan decided to buy the chime back with more than 10 million yuan from Shanghai Museum. This set of chimes is not complete. 14 of them were bought from Shanghai Museum. Later, the remaining 2 bells were unearthed in the cemetery of Jin Marquis of Western Zhou Dynasty in Quwo, which confirmed the origin of this set of bells. (the story of Su Zhong, Marquis of Jin Dynasty, is quite complicated. At that time, tomb robbers took advantage of the gap between the archaeological team's return home for the new year's festival to steal, hold guns and police cars to drive the road, which can be said to be lawless. These chimes appeared in the antique market of Hong Kong a week after they were unearthed. It can be seen that the interest chain of collusion between Shanxi officials and businessmen, tomb theft and smuggling was very mature at that time. After experiencing this incident, Mr. Zou Heng, who was in charge of the excavation of the tomb of the Marquis of Jin, insisted on guarding the archaeological site every year during the Chinese new year, which was influenced by this event.) 





 
 
 Su Zhong, Marquis of the Western Zhou Dynasty, which was bought back from Hong Kong with a large sum of money, was photographed in the bronze exhibition hall of Shanghai Museum

In addition to the acquisition, the most important source of the collection of Shanghai Museum is donation. After all, the funds allocated by the state are very limited. If you just buy them, you can't buy them back in a year. Ma Chengyuan's long-term contacts in Shanghai, Hong Kong and Macao make Shanghai Museum the first choice for many collectors to donate their collections. Zhongjiangpan, the treasure of Shangbo bronzes Museum, was donated to Ye Zhaofu, chairman of the Hong Kong Sun Group; Wu Wangfu chaxie bought and donated for Mr. He Hongzhang, a famous industrialist in Hong Kong; and Mr. Fan Jirong, a Chinese American collector, contributed to purchase and donate Jin houding. These collectors have maintained good personal relations with Ma Chengyuan, which not only makes Shanghai Expo the first choice for their collections, but also provides strong financial support for Shanghai Museum to purchase cultural relics overseas. As mentioned above, both the king of Wu Fu Chai and the Jin Hou Ding were donated to Shanghai museum after Ma Chengyuan saw them in the Hong Kong antique shop and contacted the collectors to buy them. If only relying on the modest collection of funds (as well as the cumbersome reporting, application and approval process), these important collections would have been lost. 




<img class="content-image" src=" https://pic3.zhimg.com/v2-0a9de3c4c94825deeeaaa4971c84be2a_ b. Zhongjiang plate, an important spring and autumn artifact donated by Ye Zhaofu, was photographed in the bronze exhibition hall of Shanghai Museum




<img class="content-image" src=" https://pic4.zhimg.com/v2-49b8ed2347cbe020217b8cd824abc9b7_ b. The author took this photo in the bronze exhibition hall of Shanghai Museum

Mr. Ma Chengyuan died of depression in 2004, but he suffered a lot of stigma for no reason. There are rumors on the Internet that he committed suicide because he bought fake bamboo slips and bronzes for Shangbo. There are also artificial rumors that he committed suicide because he embezzled the collection funds of Shanghai blog. The mentality of these rumor mongers can be easily seen from the distrust of public institutions. When they hear that the curator has committed suicide, they make up vivid but unsubstantiated rumors, just like the flies in the camp, which are ugly and dirty. I don't know how many bronze enthusiasts and researchers like me benefit from the bronze exhibition hall of Shanghai Museum. I hope to make some modest contributions to curator Ma Chengyuan by writing this reply.

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