3 days, 10 hours ago

01



 in the last issue 
 we mentioned that Hollywood achieved unprecedented commercial success in the mid-1940s. 

It was a golden age of stars. Going to the cinema was the mainstream entertainment. 


[1]


As a reference, according to the data of the national film administration, in 2019, the number of people watching movies in China will be 1.727 billion, and the number of film watching per capita will be 1.23. Then, this plain little box brought all this to an abrupt end. 


 
 
 today, let's talk about whether the advent of television has really changed movies forever. 

 
 
 
 02 
 
 
 
 TV Preview

As a matter of fact, TV doesn't just pop out of the stone and start to make a big fuss in heaven. 

Television came into being in the 1920s. On April 1, 1938, the BBC broadcast the Oxford Cambridge rowing match live on TV for the first time. 


[2]


The Second World War delayed the popularization of television nearly ten years, but it provided a more favorable opportunity for the development of television. Between 1947 and 1953, the number of people living in the suburbs increased by 43%. (the total population of the United States increased by 11% over the same period)

<img class="content-image" src=" https://pic1.zhimg.com/v2-461a6a1100c619fb930566327fe52424_ b. The rise of suburban life has pushed more and more American families away from downtown cinemas. However, physical distance does not limit people's consumption of information and products. All kinds of brand-new commodities have entered American families through the developed radio network. 


 
 
 vacuum cleaner, refrigerator, oven, and, of course, TV. 

<img class="content-image" src=" https://pic2.zhimg.com/v2-5c0e245698bd7827e2a39315b2ac7cf9_ b. For advertisers, TV is the perfect media: an unheard of product can become a daily necessity like toothpaste through the magic of TV. "Hearing is false, seeing is believing". The ability of TV in carrying goods is beyond the reach of his predecessor and radio station. 

<img class="content-image" src=" https://pic2.zhimg.com/v2-86111cecbfacfd9fdf09683ef61c4a79_ b. It is imperative to popularize TV in the future. Let every American family have a TV has become the dream of the pioneers. 

The number of television sets in the United States reached six million in 1950. 
[2]


By the end of 1959, the number had reached 52 million, and almost 90% of households had at least one television. 
[4]


In other words, it was not until the late 1950s that television was really popular in the United States. However, it is generally believed that 1948 marked the advent of the television age. Why? 

 
 
 
 03 
 
 
 
 the first year of 1948 TV

First, let's look at what television did in 1948. 

Throughout 1948, the number of television sets in the United States quadrupled to one million. 

Due to the lack of early content, it was not until the autumn of 1948 that the four major television networks (
 ABC, CBS, NBC, Dumont television network 
) provided uninterrupted TV programs every night during prime time (
 8-11pm 
). 


 
 clockwise: CBS NBC ABC Dumont 
 
 
 soon, the first popular program in TV history, "the Texaco Star Theatre" 
, was broadcast on NBC. 


 
 
 this kind of program type, which integrates a variety of performance forms, is called variety show, which is the originator of "variety show". 

Popular programs have played a huge role in the promotion of television, at the same time, TV has begun to penetrate into all aspects of people's lives. It was also in this year that television, as a media, participated for the first time in the presidential election. 


 
 1948 presidential election 
 
 
 for ordinary viewers, owning TV in the living room means that they can watch the live broadcast of sports events at home


 
 Jesse Owens's live performance of pop stars in the 100 meter race of Berlin Olympic Games in 1936


 
 
... And the queen of England's Christmas speech at CBS's Sullivan theatre. 

<img class="content-image" src=" https://pic2.zhimg.com/v2-57611493e47fe43e3293faf8d4bb6a45_ b. In addition to the TV's own efforts, Hollywood has also played a crucial role in the rise of television. 

In fact, Hollywood has complex feelings about this perhaps the most important audio-visual media since the invention of film. 

On the one hand, we should study it, be on guard against it and take precautions against it. On the other hand, they want to get a share of the huge potential market of TV. 

<img class="content-image" src=" https://pic2.zhimg.com/v2-d9e330f0114352874ce7c5d60c6f6565_ b. As a result, Hollywood has been paying close attention to TV since the 1920s, and the best way for film companies to deal with anxiety is to have their own TV stations. 

Among them, the most radical is paramount. Four of the first nine television stations in the United States were owned by paramount. 

Other studios have followed suit, applying for radio and television licenses and building TV stations. 


 
 
 
 
 
 04 
 
 
 
 the end of Hollywood's Golden Age

At that time, Hollywood was the era of big studios covering the sky. In addition to making films, they also own their own cinemas, which have an absolute say in the film distribution and screening end. 


 
 Warner's cinemas 
 
 
 If independent cinemas want to get A-class films with a large number of stars, they have to pack and buy a number of B-rated films with mixed good and bad at the same time. 

With the development of this bundling distribution mode (
 block booking 
), independent cinemas even had to pay in advance for films that had not yet been shot. 


 
 how wonderful life is (1946) 
 
 
 the distribution strategy of "no loss" supports the Hollywood giant to produce films day and night, which to some extent promotes the golden age of Hollywood. 

However, the U.S. government did not sit idly by. With Paramount's defeat in the antitrust case, major studios were banned from owning cinemas and gradually handed over their control over the film distribution end. 


 
 
 shortly after that, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) announced the suspension of broadcasting and television licensing, especially for large studios that had been judged to be involved in monopoly operations. 

The plan to control the TV station is dead, and Hollywood can only accept the reality and bow in. 

They began to make TV programs for TV stations. 


 
 "Hitchcock theater" (1955-1965) NBC CBS 
 
 
 Disney produced a weekly program called "Disneyland" for ABC. 


 
 
 that is to say, with the help of this program, Disney has attracted ABC's investment and built its first Disneyland. 

<img class="content-image" src=" https://pic3.zhimg.com/v2-6406d40e22cd18c30fa0678768603bce_ b. In addition to providing "made in Hollywood" TV content, film companies also selectively sell the broadcasting rights of old movies to local TV stations. 


 
 
 in fact, showing movies on TV has always been in the plan of TV producers. 

The earliest TV sets used a 4:3 aspect ratio, converted to a decimal of 1.33:1, almost the same size as a sound film. It also meant that films of the time could be shown on full screen on television. 


 
 
 is the best seat in the cinema or the living room? The audience 70 years ago faced the same problem that we all feel now. 

<img class="content-image" src="https:/

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