3 days, 3 hours ago
As a nutritionist and the mother of two mythical beasts, she has a say in this issue. Every day in the nutrition clinic will meet for various reasons to see a pregnant mother. There are some pregnant mothers who are greedy for cats, who are not averse to eating during pregnancy and want to eat them immediately; some pregnant mothers who have serious reaction during pregnancy and feel nauseous when they see what they eat and rely on fruits to "survive"; and there are pregnant mothers who are crazy to supplement all kinds of nutrition during pregnancy. In fact, after pregnancy, the body metabolism of pregnant mother will have some changes, and the metabolism and absorption of food will be somewhat different from that before pregnancy, so the diet nutrition of pregnant mother during pregnancy needs special attention of family members. Unreasonable diet will not only affect the weight of the fetus, delivery, mother's postpartum recovery, the health status of the baby after birth, and some pregnant mothers will have gestational diabetes and other pregnancy diseases. Nutrition is with us all our life. For pregnant mothers, nutrition during pregnancy is only a stage, but for babies, it is the beginning of nutrition in the early life. As the most important environmental factor, nutrition will have a vital impact on the short-term and long-term health of both mother and child. The growth and development of the fetus during pregnancy, the development of the maternal mammary gland and uterus and the necessary nutritional reserve for the secretion of milk after delivery all need additional nutrition. Therefore, the diet of pregnant women should be adjusted on the basis of non pregnant women according to fetal growth rate and maternal physiological and metabolic changes. The growth and development speed of fetus in early pregnancy is relatively slow, and there is no significant difference in nutrition between pre pregnancy and early pregnancy. Since the second trimester of pregnancy, the growth and development of the fetus is gradually accelerated, and the development of maternal reproductive organs is also accelerated accordingly. The need for nutrition is increased, and the intake of food should be reasonably increased. The diet of pregnant women should be a balanced diet composed of various foods. In addition to ensuring the nutritional needs during pregnancy, it also affects the older infants' acceptance of complementary food and the establishment of diversified dietary structure. The diet of pregnant women should be supplemented with the diet of general population as follows: (1) Supplement folic acid, often eat iron rich food, choose iodized salt (2) Pregnant vomiting is serious, can a small amount of multiple meals, to ensure the intake of food containing the necessary amount of carbohydrates (3) In the second and third trimester of pregnancy, the intake of milk, fish, poultry, eggs and lean meat should be increased, and high-quality protein should be increased (4) Appropriate physical activity to maintain appropriate weight gain during pregnancy (5) No smoking and drinking, happy to give birth to new life, actively prepare for breast-feeding. 1、 Supplement folic acid, often eat iron rich food, choose iodized salt How to meet the needs of folic acid, fruit, fruit and vegetable during pregnancy. However, folic acid in natural food is a variety of derivatives of tetrahydrofolate, which is reduced. It is easy to decompose in cooking or heating, and has low bioavailability; the synthesized folic acid is oxidized monoglutamic acid folate with good stability and high bioavailability. Therefore, in addition to eating food rich in folic acid during pregnancy, folic acid should be supplemented by 400 μ g / D to meet its needs. Daily intake of 400 g of various vegetables, and more than 1 / 2 of which are fresh green leafy vegetables, can provide about 200 μ g folic acid. 2. How to get the extra iron needed during pregnancy through diet: as the iron content in the blood, liver and red meat of animals is relatively rich, and the iron contained is heme iron, its bioavailability is high, so we can appropriately increase the intake of this kind of food to meet the extra needs of iron during pregnancy. In the second and third trimester of pregnancy, increasing 20-50 g of red meat can provide 1-2.5 mg of iron, and the intake of 20-50 g of animal blood and liver once or twice a week can provide 7-15 mg of iron, which can basically meet the needs of increased iron nutrition during pregnancy. 3. Iodine is the raw material of thyroxine synthesis, and an essential trace element for regulating metabolism and promoting protein synthesis. Besides iodized salt, we should also take in iodine rich seafood once or twice a week. 2、 Pregnant vomiting is serious, can a small amount of multiple meals, to ensure the intake of food containing the necessary amount of carbohydrates Ensure that the daily intake of at least 130 carbohydrates: when pregnancy and vomiting seriously affect food intake, in order to ensure the brain tissue needs for glucose and prevent the harm of ketoacidosis to the fetus, it is necessary to take at least 130 g carbohydrate every day. The first choice should be rich in carbohydrates, easy to digest Cereals, such as rice, flour, toast, steamed bread, biscuits and so on. A variety of cakes, potatoes, root vegetables and some fruits also contain more carbohydrates, which can be selected according to the taste of pregnant women. Sugar, honey and other main ingredients for simple carbohydrates, easy to absorb, eating less or severe vomiting when eating, can quickly supplement the body's carbohydrates. Patients with dysphagia or severe pregnancy and vomiting should seek the help of doctors, and consider the way of intravenous glucose to supplement the necessary amount of carbohydrates. The foods that can provide 130g carbohydrate include: 200g whole wheat flour; 170-180g refined wheat flour or rice; or the food combination of rice 50g, wheat flour 50g, fresh corn 100g, potato 150g, which is the food meeting the minimum limit of 130g carbohydrate. 3、 Increase the intake of milk, fish, poultry, eggs, lean meat and high-quality protein. 1. From the second trimester of pregnancy, the milk intake was increased by 200g every day, so that the total intake of milk reached 500 g / d. 2. The intake of high-quality protein can promote the growth and development of the fetus, such as increasing the intake of fish, shrimp, eggs, meat and dairy products. In the second trimester of pregnancy, a total of 50g of fish, poultry, eggs and lean meat will be added every day, and about 75g in the third trimester. 3. It is better to eat deep sea fish 2-3 times a week. 4. At this stage, constipation, even hemorrhoids, is perplexing. Therefore, we should first increase the intake of coarse fiber food, drink appropriate amount of water, and form the habit of regular defecation. If severe constipation can be intervened with drugs, such as lactulose or probiotics. When constipation is serious, a small amount of Kaiselu can also be used. 4、 Proper physical activity to maintain proper weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain is the most practical and intuitive index to reflect the nutritional status of pregnant women, which is closely related to the outcome of pregnancy such as fetal birth weight and pregnancy complications. In order to ensure the normal growth and development of fetus and avoid adverse pregnancy outcome, the weight gain during pregnancy should be kept in the appropriate range. Balanced diet and moderate physical activity are the basis for maintaining proper weight growth during pregnancy. Physical activity is also conducive to pleasant mood and natural childbirth. Healthy pregnant women should carry out no less than 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity every day. 5、 No smoking and drinking, happy to give birth to new life, actively prepare for breast-feeding 1. Pregnant women should prohibit smoking and alcohol, but also avoid passive smoking and bad air environment. 2. Pregnant women should communicate with their families and friends and consult professionals when their mood fluctuates. 3. Proper outdoor activities and sports are helpful to release pressure and make people happy. 4. Breast feeding should be actively prepared after the second trimester of pregnancy.