8 months, 3 weeks ago
In terms of fame, Leonov can be said to be the second only to Yuri Gagarin in the astronauts of the Soviet space era. In terms of contribution, he not only achieved personal aerospace achievements, but also the entire human space industry. Made a huge contribution. 1. Human space flight for the first time On March 18, 1965, the first Soviet astronauts Alexei Leonov and Berieyev took the Soviet Rising No. 2 rocket and spaceship into space. He then achieved a great feat in human history. : First space out of the cabin. At that time, the Sumei space race reached its peak. The United States received the highest amount of funds due to the existence of the Apollo mission to the moon, accounting for more than 10 times the federal budget. The Soviet Union is also under great pressure. It is seriously lagging behind in the development of the moon rocket. It is urgent to pull back a city. The existence of the rising number and the launch of Leonov have taken great risks. For example, the Rising Rocket and spacecraft do not have an escape tower. This is incredible now, because it means that if there are any problems during the launch and preparation phase, the astronauts will have no way to escape and die. The design of the outerwear is exactly what it is, and it needs to be verified. According to the current technology, he continued to walk in 12 minutes and 9 seconds, basically doing the following thing: "When people go out, can they live?" Fortunately, the launch was successful. The Soviets were very bold and decided to broadcast the flight out of the cabin! So the audience around the world saw the beautiful scene of Leonov "floating" on the background of the blue earth. But soon the problem came, and it began to swell in the vacuum due to the design of the cabin suit. This led to an extremely serious consequence: Leonov could not return to the spacecraft at all, he was already "swollen". The Soviet TV station also switched the live broadcast to a dance drama, but all the audience knew what happened. I can imagine how nervous people are in that situation. Later Leonov made an extremely risky decision: he began to expel oxygen from the cabin. This will reduce the expansion, but the price is that he is also lack of oxygen, if not solve the problem is basically complete. In the end, he was very fortunate to have completed this step and successfully returned to the spacecraft. However, the follow-up problems came one after another. The air traffic control equipment in the spacecraft first caused a surge in oxygen content, and the two were almost drunk and faint. During the return process, the spacecraft navigation control equipment caused another major problem, resulting in a landing location of 386 kilometers from the original plan! The parachute is still hanging on the tree! The disaster is not alone, the air conditioning equipment in the cabin is still starting to cool, but there is the Siberian ice sheet! The communication equipment was also broken, and the two were completely lost. I can only go out to hide outside, according to his statement: "It is a miracle to hear the wolf all night and not to be frozen." The Soviet side was also very anxious, and the army began a large-scale search. Finally, in the accidental discovery of a Soviet amateur radio enthusiast, I finally found the traces of the two. It was not until March 20 that the two were finally rescued. The process of salvation also has a detail: because the landing site is a jungle, the helicopter can not be reached, they use the snowboard provided by the military to "ski" out. Afterwards, Leonov received no less honor and respect than Gagarin and became a national hero. The rising series exposed many problems and the whole project ended. 2. Extremely unfortunate and extremely lucky The success of the out-of-cabin walk shocked the world and greatly enhanced the confidence of the Soviet manned spaceflight industry. At this time, everything has been owed to the rocket. Leonov was also selected as the first batch of monthly test missions. Soviet astronaut. Of course, we know from the history of the event: the former Soviet Union's moon rocket N1 has suffered four serious launch explosions due to major design flaws and has never succeeded. The power is so great that these four times can be placed on the list of the strongest single non-nuclear artificial explosions made by humans. There is no doubt that Leonov regrets to permanently lose the opportunity to land on the moon. In 1971, the Soviet Union had launched the first human space station salute, and it needed to carry out manned missions. As a veteran, Leonov was also ordered to perform the Alliance No. 11 mission. But the regret is that his teammates were seriously ill, causing them to be replaced on the eve of the launch mission. But even more regrettable, Union 11 became the most painful manned space disaster in the history of the Soviet Union: a gas leak occurred during the return to Earth, and all three astronauts sacrificed. 3. Alliance - Apollo test mission After spending a lot of money on the Apollo mission to the moon, the Americans finally set foot on the moon. However, at this time, the Soviet Union and the United States found that neither of them had recovered their due returns through manned space flight, and the funds were suddenly reduced. The limited money was invested in a new generation of space projects: space shuttles, solar system exploration, and space stations. At the same time, both countries are facing a lot of pressure from home and abroad. Military spending has suddenly increased. The Soviet Union is obviously worse. It is unwilling to continue to compete and spend money. Under this circumstance, a series of incidents such as the exchange of visits between leaders of the Soviet Union and the United States took place. The two sides decided to stop the arms race in space, shake hands and jointly develop space. Both the Alliance and Apollo are very mature plans, and Apollo has a ready-made backup spacecraft (Apollo 18). The alliance is also mass-produced. The low cost of both parties can also be an attitude. How good. On July 17, 1975, under the operation of three US astronauts and two Soviet astronauts, the Apollo 18 spacecraft and the Alliance 19 spacecraft successfully docked at a height of 200 kilometers on the surface, 23 hours a day. After the flight, the two then returned to Earth. At the moment of opening the hatch, Soviet astronaut Alexei Leonov and American astronaut Thomas Stamford clenched their hands, one of the greatest moments in human history, marking the end of the space race. The two superpowers began the possibility of peaceful use of the space process. Although this is the smallest manned space program in human history, only one mission, but the foundation laid by this cooperation has opened up the possibility of future cooperation. Later, Russia and the United States naturally embarked on the road of cooperation in the development of space. The most typical is the later space shuttle - the Peace Plan. During the 15 years from 1986 to 2001, the US space shuttle visited the Mir space station 11 times. The astronauts of both sides have harvested a lot of scientific research results. At that time, the combination of the two has become a classic picture in the history of aerospace. This kind of good relationship has continued until now. Subsequent Russia plans to develop the second generation of Peace and the United States plan to free space station program, the two sides directly shake hands to agree to establish a space station, and accept the application of the world's major countries to join, this program is running since 1998 To today's International Space Station. 4. Peaceful behind-the-scenes and life in later life Leonov has won numerous honorary titles including two Soviet heroes. After completing a series of feats, he chose to retire behind the scenes and concentrate on astronaut training. At the same time, he also served as a space ambassador and witnessed numerous international space cooperation. In his daily life, he also loves to paint oil paintings, such as this classic work "Near The Moon." There is no doubt that if Leonov has any regrets, it is that he has not seen the scenes in the painting he painted. On October 11th, 2019, the 85-year-old hero who witnessed the entire history of human space flight from 0 began to quietly leave, hoping that he would return to the moon and see for himself the only regret in his life.