2 weeks ago

The sound of "bang bang bang" is used in many cultures to call for animals. Although we write it as "bang bang", from the phonetic point of view, this sound is called "click" (also known as sucking sound, smacking sound, Ho, in English). Generally speaking, when we call an animal, we will make a continuous gingival click (and maybe a little round lip). The international phonetic alphabet says: "ǀ. ǀʷ. ǀ. ǀ. ǀʷ]. 

This animal calling sounds (a good French term: huchement de Berger) is a way of communicating with animals as imagined by human beings. Is it true that animal calls in all cultures use the click sound? Most likely, if you don't go out of China, dogs in other places won't understand! 

Please go to Aba Prefecture in Sichuan to see Jiarong language. 

Animal call in Jiarong language is a complex system. Different livestock and poultry have different sounds. It seems that the Jiarong people think that each animal has a different language, so they have to talk to them in different ways. Jacques (2013) published an article on the adverbial words in Chabao dialect of Jiarong language in anthropological linguistics 
 [1] 
, which mentioned the animal call in Chabao dialect. Let's look at the following table:


 
 
 the animal calls in Chabao dialect can be divided into cat, dog, poultry, goat, sheep, horse, yak, cow, cattle and pig. Cattle are divided into male and female, pigs are also divided into size. There is a call, there is a drive. 


 it has been asked whether these animal calls are imitative of animal calls? 
 there may be a small number of them, but most of them are not. Calling for poultry's t ʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂ. And one of the calling patterns of adult pigs, Wan Wan Wan, may also imitate pig calls. But other calls may come from other sources. For example, so ŋŋŋŋŋŋŋསོང་་་་་) should be a Tibetan loan word. Some may have something to do with the names of animals, but most of them have no source. 

After watching the Chateau dialect, let's go further west and visit chuoska in Jinchuan and rantang counties. Lai Yunfan has shamelessly done the same report in several places (at least in Paris and Shanghai). 
 [2] 
 (of course, you can see it in his doctoral thesis 
 [3] 
), which is about the call of animals in chuska. But he also made an interesting point. For the sake of convenience, we only call for the dialect of Kawakawa. 


 cat

Si YUEWU: l î lilili; l æ̂ L æ L æ L æ L æ; ts ə ʁ̂. TS ʁ

Russian fever: l î lilililili


 dog

Si YUEWU: tŝ (big dog); C ʰ̂ C ʰ (dog)

Russian fever: TS â


 chicken

Shi YUEWU: K û kukukukuku

Russian fever: K û kukukukuku; t û t ʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂʂ u


 pig

Shi YUEWU: ̂̂rurururu; æ̂̂ nunununu

Russian fever


 cattle (general name) 


Russia: long A. long a; long A. long a


 we should pay attention to this structure: CAQA (C is a consonant, q is a small tongue consonant) 



 Yellow Cattle

Si YUEWU: ô B ə le. B ə le. B ə Le (male, this may be related to B ə L é 'cattle'); উŋŋŋŋŋ (female); K æ kࣽk æ (small)

Russian fever: bࣕa.b.a


 the bࣕa.b ʁ a of Russia re is an addition of a B - to the long A. B. A of cattle, which may also be related to B ə L é of yellow cattle. 



 yak

He is a very important person

Russian fever: VLE


 yak

Si YUEWU: এ x ɕ. X ɕ (female); ô rere (male); t ɕ. T ɕ (small)

Russian fever: t ɕ. T ɕɣ (yak general name)


 we can see that Russian fever's unified call for yaks t ɕ. T ɕɣ ə, was used by siyuewu to call small yaks. 



 goat

Si YUEWU: TS ə̂ɣə. TS ə̂ɣə

Russian fever: t â QA. T â QA


 sheep

Si YUEWU: La ʁ a.la ʁ a

Russian fever: lࣕa.l ʁ a


 we compared goat tࣕqa with sheep lࣕa.l ʁ A. they belong to the syllable structure of CAQA like cattle (ࣕa, ʁʁ a, bࣕa). The initials of goat tࣕqa can be softened into sheep's lࣕa, or vice versa, sheep's lࣕa can be hardened into goat's tࣕqa. In some dialects of Daofu language, sheep is just La ʁ a, but goat does not have the name of taqa, so it is possible that the call of goat is based on sheep. 



 horse

Si YUEWU: ̃̂ɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕɕ. ɕ

Russia's hot spot


 we found that the ɕ. ɕ. ɕ ɕɣɣɕɣəɕɣəɕ. T ɕɣəɕ. T ɕɣ ə are the differences between fricative and affricate. At the same time, the goat TS ə̂ɣə of Si YUEWU is also a little similar. 


According to the similarity of the syllabic structure of animal calls in chuoska language, Lai Yunfan proposed an animal classification based on animal calls, which may reflect the cognition of chuoska ancestors to livestock. They may use similar calls to call animals that they think speak the same "language". For example, cattle and sheep have recorded the syllable structure of CAQA, while yaks and horses have (T) ɕ (s) ɣ ə. Maybe the Zoroastrians regarded yaks and horses as animals that could talk to each other. This may have something to do with herdsmen's life. Yaks and horses can be used to load and transport goods. 

At the same time, CAQA and (T) ɕɣə also have similar syllables. It is likely that - Q - and - ɣ - are conditional variants presented according to different vowels (this is seen by a Cuo of Nankai University, thank him here). Therefore, a relationship tree of ethnozoology is made, which may reflect the classification of domestic animals in the brain of the original chuska users (TS ʰ QR æ R ə̂ɣ is a coined word as the name of this species. It comes from TS ʰ QR ऄ L é 'sheep dung', but its etymology is the combination of TS ʰ d 'goat' and Q ʰ R ɣ'female yak ':


 
 
 this idea is only an interesting conjecture, which needs more field research to verify.

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