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"Mozi Luwen" records a story: "gongloser cut bamboo and wood to think of magpie, and then fly. After three days, gongloser thinks it's wonderful." 

It's a legend that Luban, a famous craftsman in China, invented a wooden kite that can fly for three days. There's even another legend that this kind of wooden kite can carry people far away. Even now, it's unbelievable without batteries, fuel and other power. Unfortunately, the mysterious design of Luban has not been preserved. Most people believe it is just a wooden kite. 




[it's a statue of Luban. It's said that the wooden kite he invented can fly people 】(image source: wiki)

According to the biography of Zhuge Liang in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, "in the ninth year of Jianxing, Liang came back to Qi Mountain, transported wood, cattle and grain to the end of the army; in the spring of the twelfth year, Liang learned that the masses came out of the valley and transported horses. According to the wuzhangyuan of martial arts, he and Sima xuanwang dealt with Weinan." 

The story of Zhuge's prime minister building wooden cattle and flowing horses is more widely known. It is said that "every cow carries ten people's food for one month. People don't work very hard, and cattle don't eat." Later, "the romance of the Three Kingdoms" described a more supernatural, so-called wooden cattle and flowing horses can walk without manpower, and also have the function of secret lock. 

There are specific ways to make a wooden ox and a flowing horse in the annals of the Three Kingdoms and the romance of the Three Kingdoms, but where the motivation comes from is not explained in detail. According to records, Zuchongzhi of the Liu and Song Dynasties later copied the horse, but he also left no information and drawings. People can only speculate about this anti sky black technology according to their own imagination. Most people tend to believe that what Zhugeliang made was only a unicycle. After the later legend added some spice to it, it became the look in the romance of the Three Kingdoms. 




In the TV series new Three Kingdoms, I choose to believe that this is just a kind of unicycle. 】(photo source: iqiyi)

There's no nationalism here. Why do modern people prefer not to believe in the existence of Luban wooden kite and wooden cattle and horses? Because we will question: where do they come from? 

Yes, since ancient times, craftsmen have been racking their brains, using their wisdom to constantly improve the materials in their hands, making the machinery more powerful, and hoping that our life will be more convenient! If we can make a kind of machine that can run automatically without external force, it can liberate the whole mankind. A large number of wise people are fascinated by it and go on and on. This kind of machine is called "perpetual motion machine"! 




Is this home furnishing a perpetual motion machine? 】(picture from Internet)

The exact definition of "perpetual motion machine" has changed many times in history. Looking back on this history, from the ancient simple machinery to various new energy sources, it's unbelievable. It can be imagined that if an electric fan is displayed in front of the ancients, they will be shocked to the ground. However, from the current point of view, the electric fan can not be regarded as a permanent machine, it must be powered to rotate, the real permanent machine does not need energy input. 

"Perpetual motion machine" bears too much stigma in the history of science. From the perspective of modern people, there are many laughs in this period of history. There are many fools and even swindlers here, but it must be pointed out that most of the "perpetual motion machine" pursuers are active in their hearts. They are racking their brains to improve the technology and mechanical efficiency. They are not warriors, but their opponents are the creator of the universe; they will not cheat, they are not thieves, but they try to use their wisdom to steal the energy of God. In this sense, they are the pioneers of human civilization. Looking back on this history, we must pay tribute to them! 




[(design lines) human: Dad, borrow some energy! God: give you three words, think - of - beauty! 】(image source: wiki)

In the 12th century, there was a mathematician and astronomer named boshgaro in India. It is said that he had the idea of calculus five centuries earlier than Newton and Leibniz. In addition, he also constructed a "vashkaro wheel", which claims to be able to turn forever, which is the earliest record of "perpetual motion". 




The earliest "magic wheel" was made by Indians. 】(image source: wiki)

This strange device was introduced to Europe in the 13th century. A "magic wheel" device was recorded in the manuscript of French craftsman o'neikul. Since the friction force of this device is very small, it was later used on the armillary sphere. 

"Magic wheel" seems to be able to move forever, but it is not the perpetual motive in the legend. A perpetual motion machine must be able to output energy to the outside world, which is what we call "doing work". If the friction between the bearing in the middle of the "magic wheel" and the objects of the device is small enough, the wheel can rotate for a long time, but it can't output a little energy. 




The earliest magic wheel in Europe. 】(image source: wiki)

Such a delicate design certainly can't escape Leonardo da Vinci's eyes. He can be called an all-round talent in western history. He is proficient in painting, engineering, architecture, astronomy, anatomy, geometry, mathematics, physics and dynamics. Legend has it that helicopter, glider, sewing machine and other epoch-making inventions are all registered in his account. He also left behind uncountable mechanical drawings, all of which were extremely ingenious. It can be seen from this that he is also fascinated by the "perpetual motion machine" that can get energy for free. Who knows, to meet him only once again failed, which let Da Vinci finally frustrated: "Oh! How many illusions of nothingness are you obsessed with, you seekers of perpetual motion? Go, find the alchemist! " (alchemy at that time was more mysterious...) 




[Leonardo da Vinci studies the manuscripts of various perpetual motion machines. 】(image source: YouTube)

Leonardo da Vinci's exclamation did not extinguish the pursuit of "perpetual motion machine" by craftsmen and even scientists, wave after wave, to get eternal free energy by improving the "magic wheel". 

For example, it seems reasonable that the right swing arm is longer, which seems to drive wheels. But after careful study, it is not difficult to understand that although the left pendulum has a short force arm, it is obviously more in number. When weighted, the comprehensive moment is exactly the same. Therefore, this kind of magic wheel will not rotate spontaneously at all without being driven by external forces. Even if it is given an initial driving force, it may be able to rotate for a long time later, but due to the air resistance and the resistance encountered by the bearing rotation, it will eventually stop. 




(image source: wiki)

There are also all kinds of improved versions of "magic wheel", which do not change medicine. 













(source: YouTube)

Boyle, a great scientist, was one of the early pursuers of "perpetual motion machine". He invented an "eternal high foot wine glass", which tried to drive water through the glass and pipes by the gravity of water, as shown below. Obviously, this is a futile attempt. Even junior high school students now understand that the water will eventually stop, as in the U-shaped tube, and both sides are highly consistent. 




(image source: YouTube)

The British naturalist Froude invented a kind of water turbine, which claims to be able to transport water spontaneously from the low to the high. After careful analysis, this is the principle of Archimedes spiral invented many years ago. Without energy input, it is obviously impossible to pump water. 




The perpetual motion machine "water spiral" invented by Robert Freud in 1618. 







The above two figures show the principle of Archimedes spiral. Do you think it does not need energy input? 】(image source: wiki)

In this era, the integrator of perpetual motion machine is German Bessler, who invented more than 300 kinds of perpetual motion machine in his whole life. 

In 1712, Bessler built an "automatic wheel" more than 2 meters high in a village near Leipzig, which is said to lift 18 kg of heavy objects. The invention also shocked famous mathematicians Leibniz, John Bernoulli and philosopher Christian Wolff. These big bulls have funded Bessler to continue to build bigger wheels. He also succeeded in fooling Prince Carl of Hesse Kassel city state, appointed as a business consultant, and allowed him to improve the wheel while living in the castle of visenstein. He built a bigger wheel here, 3.7 meters high. 




[the integrator of perpetual motion machine: Bessler. 】(image source: wiki)

Prince Carl is not a fool either. He asked a large number of scientists to come to identify him. Of course, Bessler is not a good man. He only allowed the scientists to watch out of the window for the sake of preventing others from stealing his invention. The scientists did see the big wheel turning. Bessler closed the doors and windows of the room again, pasted a seal, and asked the scientists to look again two weeks later. The results showed that the wheels were still turning, but what could be the reason? Bessler is more confident this time, offering 20000 pounds to sell his wheels

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